Common Eye Diseases

Some eye problems are minor and do not last long. However, others can bring about an irreversible loss of vision. Annual routine checkups are needed since eye illnesses do not always have symptoms. Early detection and therapy can protect against vision loss. See an eye care specialist as soon as possible if you have an abrupt vision change or see flashes of light.

Common eye problems include mild eye diseases like pink eye and more severe conditions that can lead to vision loss like macular degeneration and glaucoma. You will undoubtedly find the signs of some of one of the most common eye problems, mainly around the anatomy of the eye.

The eye’s main components consist of the following:

  • Cornea: clear tissue in the outer front of the eye.
  • Iris: tinted component of the eye surrounding the pupil.
  • Pupil: dark hole in the iris that regulates the quantity of light entering into the eye.
  • Lens: tiny clear disk inside that concentrates light rays onto the retina.
  • Retina: layer that lines the rear of the eye; detects light to create electric impulses.
  • Macula: tiny central area in the retina that allows us to see.
  • Optic nerve: connects the eye to the brain and brings the retina’s electrical impulses to the cortex.

Eye problems can involve any and all of these components.
Some diseases such as:

Glaucoma

Glaucoma impacts the optic nerve and may create vision loss. Glaucoma can be categorized in two ways:
1) open-angle, which is typical and develops more gradually 
2) angle-closure, which comes on instantly and is painful.

In the very early stages of glaucoma, there are typically no signs. By the time vision is affected, the damages are irreversible. Glaucoma development can be delayed with laser therapy or surgical procedures. As a result, routine checkups and early diagnosis are critical. Individuals with family history of glaucoma, elderly people, and African-Americans are at higher risk of having this condition.

Cataract

Cataract is a painless cloudy lens in the eye that causes unclear vision and gets worse with age. Most individuals that reach their mid-70s will undoubtedly have some cataract-like adjustments to their cornea. Aside from aging, triggers of cataracts consist of diabetes, injury, drugs, and excessive UV light exposure.

Treatments for cataracts include glasses, multiplying lenses, and surgery. Surgical treatment is medicinal as the cloudy lens is removed and changed with a synthetic one. The benefits and risks associated with surgery should be carefully reviewed with your eye care professional.

Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration is an eye condition that can start at any age but typically develops after 60 years of age. It hardly ever causes total blindness since only the center of vision is affected.

There are two types of macular degeneration: wet and dry.

In wet macular degeneration, abnormal blood vessels behind the retina begin to grow, leaking blood and fluid, causing loss of central vision, which could happen quickly. In dry macular generation, the macula’s light-sensitive cells gradually break down which may cause vision loss over time.

Retinal Detachment

The accumulation of fluid behind the retina is what separates the retina from the eye. Retinal detachment is often pain free. At-risk individuals for retinal detachment are a myopic adult age 25 to 50 and a senior citizen after cataract surgery.

Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis, or pink eye, is a condition that causes soreness and swelling of the clear tissue covering the eye and the inside of the eyelids, also known as conjunctiva. It is mainly triggered by bacterial or viral infections but can may also be caused by irritants such as chemicals, toxins, and allergens. Many cases of transmittable conjunctivitis are viral and do not require treatment with antibiotics.

 

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